India ‘s flag is a tricolor standard, The saffron color represents courage and sacrifice; white – truth and purity; green – peace and prosperity; and the Ashok Chakra represents the Laws of Dharma (righteousness) with 24 spokes. This is the Ashoka chakra (or “wheel of Law”)

the chakra represents the continuing progress of the nation and importance of justice in life .It also appears on the Sarnath Lion capital of Ashoka. The Indian flag was officially adopted on July 22nd 1947 buy the constituent assembly. the Indian flag code states that the flag should have a width to length ratio of 2-3.the saffron band must be on the top. In addition the code requires that the official Indian flag be made of hand spun cloth .

National Anthem of India.

The National anthem is written by Rabindranath Tagore, it was first sung in 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian national congress .The anthem was translated into English in 1911 by Tagore .

National song of India is vandemataram

    • India ‘s national animal is TIGER.
    • India ‘s National flower being LOTUS.
    • India ‘s national bird is PEACOCK.
    • The national tree is BANYAN TREE.
    • India national sport is HOCKEY (But CRICKET is the most popular sport in India ).
    • India ‘s National fruit is MANGO.



The National Emblem of India is a replica of the lion of sarnath, near varanasi in Uttar Pradesh The lion capital was erected in the third century BC by emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe the National anthem is thus the symbolic of Contemporary India’s reaffirmation of its ancient Commitment to the world peace and goodwill The four lions (one hidden from view?)-symbolizing Power, courage and confidence the rest on a circular Abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller Animals- guardian of the four directions, the lions of The north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the South, and the bull of the west .the abacus rests on a Lotus in full bloom, exemplyfying the fountain head of Life and creative inspiration the motto” Satyameva Jayate” describes below the emblem in Devanagari Script means truth.



As part of South Asia , India had Pakistan , china Tibet , Nepal , Burma and Bangladesh as neighbors top its north and the island nation of srilanka to its South. The northern part of the country is walled by the Himalayan range, the world’s highest mountain range, these mountains gives way to gigantic Plains, the deccan plateau and even a desert, before Culminating at Cape Camorin(kanyakumari),where two oceans and a sea meet. India ‘s about 1/3 the size of USA and roughly 1/4 size of Europe . Measuring 3,214 K.M .Horizontally covers a total land is of almost 3.3 million sq kilometers .India has more than 1000 million inhabitants of which 72% of the total population leave in rural area and 28% being in rural areas.



The climate in India is broadly describes as salubrious and very agreeable. the climate of the country is classed as the seasonally dry tropical savanna climate, with four seasons. The cold weather season, from December to February is a period of little or no rainfall the hot weather begins in March. March is a dry month with a low humidity,April and May are the months of considerable thunder storm activity the south west monsoon from June to September is moist cloudy and rainy period it is also a period so fairly strong and steady winds the climate condition vary depending on the geography.



Though the modern recorded history outs India as over 5000 years old Indian epics and other literature point to all most time immemorial in it portrayal. According to the government of India almanac, India just completed 5000 years on 19th march 1999 to enter it 5001st year since the day of close of Mahabharata war to mark the beginning on of its phases in its long drawn out past ,infact Mahabharata was written above 600 years earlier before its war by the all known saga vedavyasa in the same way as it was to occur later then, in fact to its last minutest details the recent excavation of the Indus valley Civilization pertaining to Harappa And Mohenjadaro know a part of Pakistan after the partition of India however points to civilization much older than the recorded history.

Putting it across 3000-4000 BC India has an English word , derives it modern name from river Indus which flows across the extreme northwest of the country .Bharat is the name in Hindi. According to one version the original settlers where the Dravidians who subsequently to southern India following the massive influence of Aryans who entered the country around 2000 BC.



India is a secular, soveriegn republic and the world’s largest democracy. Similar to the British system, Indian Parliament has two houses the Lok sabha the lower house and the rajya sabha the upper house. Elections to the lower house are held in every 5 years and the prime minister is the head of the government and the president is the head of the state.

Each state has it’s won government (along the same lines as the centre) which interacts with the central government. Interestingly the state government of West Bengal is a communist government. Although illiteracy is high in India , Indians are very astute voters. Voter participation in the election is said to be among the highest in the world stand at 60 %.



India is a confluence of all the major religions in the world and many more also. Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the major religions in the Country with notable population; Hindus constituting around 82% followed by Muslims with 12.5% and others, including Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, Christians, Parsis etc., of the total population. Hinduism is the oldest living religion of the world and predominates India. Other religions like Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism native to India and with a common cultural base also co-exist side by side in consonance.“Hinduism is a way of life” It is a very secular religion, which accepts other religions and faiths and treats everybody with equal respect and tolerance. Indian philosophy and spirituality is deep rooted and takes intense study and meditation to understand. India’s rich cultural diversity, traditions, lifestyles is deeply influenced by religion.



Indian Railways rates among the largest undertaking i the world. The railways carry around 9 million people everyday; the net work covers a distance of over 60,000 km.Road cover almost 5.5 million kilometers and there are over 10,000 Kms of navigable waterways. Using both train and bus services one can reach almost any point at the Indian map. Though not always on time .most large cities are served by domestic air services. Economy the Indian economy is a mixed economy with agriculture, industry and services constituting the mainstay. in terms of GDP according to world bank. Indian economy is the largest in the world. However in terms of wealth distribution. There is wide disparity in terms of urban rural and will find slums next to huge sky scrapers.Cows brushing along with latest Mercedes. India is a land of fascinating contradictions and it will take time to realize that though most indian are poor economically by western standard they are a happy lot after the liberisation and economic reforms since 1992. Indian economy has grown at an annual rate of 60% people living poverty alone has declined. Information technology has grown exponentially at 40% and continues to grow in spite of the global recession.. General characteristics of the people Indians in general are very informal, helpful and hospitable people and are brought up in a culture of respecting and treating guests as god. Your hosts therefore, go out of their way to make you feel comfortable, don’t feel awkward, accept it. The Indians are very warm and talkative people who like always crowds around them. Families and friend ship are very important to Indians. respect for the elders is inborn and has to be diligently practiced. Indian children/youth are generally not given the freedom like in western society. For example smoking and drinking alcohol in the presence of elders is not appreciated. Girls are normally expected home before dark. too much or unnecessary association with the opposite sex can lead to misunderstandings. It must be clearly understood, that, it is difficult to define a typical Indian or Indians ,because of the tremendous diversity. However we can only generalize.



The Indian economy is a mixed economy with agriculture, industry and services constituting the mainstay. In terms of GDP according to World Bank, Indian th economy is the 5 largest in the world. However in terms of wealth distribution
there is wide disparity in terms of Urban-Rural and geography. You will find slums next to huge sky scrapers, cows brushing along with the latest Mercedes. India is a land of fascinating contradictions and it will take time to realize that though most Indians are poor economically by western standards they are a happy lot After the liberisation and economic reforms since 1992, Indian economy has grown at an annual rate of 6%. People living poverty line has declined. Information technology has grown exponantially at over 40%. and continues to grow inspite of the global recession.



The joint family system, which used to be the practice in both urban rural areas, is on the decline in the cities. Younger generation generally prefer simple nuclear families even in villages. The rural family life is agro-oriented and all the lifestyle is tuned to the main occupation. In recent decades, there has been change in the dress, food and drink habits of the rural people due to the influence of the urban life. A typical urban family consists of parents and two children. Some times both the parents will be working and in many cases women will be housewives.